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API Gateway

Both an API proxy and API gateway provide access to your backend services. An API gateway can even act as a simple API proxy. However, an API gateway has a more robust set of features — especially around security and monitoring — than an API proxy.

API Proxy

An API proxy acts as a gateway between your developers and backend services, although it is limited in its capabilities when compared to an API gateway. It's an intermediary that makes requests on behalf of developers, sitting between application and backend services. An API gateway provides more features including rate limiting, security, and API monitoring.

Bill of Materials (BOM)

The BOM is a list of parts and materials needed to make a product, and, without it, manufacturing would be impossible. But the BOM is only part of the product equation. It shows “what” to make, not “how” to manufacture it, leaving the rest up to the BOP.

Bill of Process (BOP)

The BOP is comprised of a set of productive operations which together lead to the production of the complete product. The BOP may be accompanied by constraints regarding the possible orderings of the production operations, which however generally do not fix the sequence completely. This allows a "flexible production".

Business Partner Number (BPN)

A standardized and unique ID for every company in the Catena-X ecosystem. This is assigned by the operating company upon registration.

Certification Authority

Trusted third-party entity issuing digital certificates (e.g., x509 certificates); may host services to validate certificates issued.

Clearing House

Intermediary providing clearing and settlement services for all financial and data exchange transactions within the International Data Space.

Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)

COTS are standard products that are manufactured in large quantities, possibly with downstream customisation. An example from the software sector is Microsoft Office365. COTS must be distinguished from customised solutions.

Cradle-to-Gate PCF

Part of the product life cycle that includes all emissions upstream of production and all emissions generated by processes within the company until the product leaves the supplier's gate.

Data Owner

Core Participant having complete control over the data it makes available in the International Data Spaces; defines the terms and conditions of use of its data.

Data Sovereignty

Data Sovereignty can be defined as a natural person’s or corporate entity’s capability of being entirely self-determined with regard to its data.

Data Space

A Data Space is a virtual data integration concept defined as a set of participants and a set of relationships among them, where participants provide their data resources and computing services. Data Spaces have following design principles: a) data resides in its sources; b) only semantic integration of data and no common data schema; c) nesting and overlaps are possible; d) spontaneous networking of data, data visiting and coexistence of data are enabled. Within one Data Ecosystem, several Data Spaces can emerge.

Digital Twin (DT)

The DT is a virtual representation of assets and has the following characteristics:

- The DT has at least one Catena-X-wide unique ID.
- Digital Twins are organised according to a number of aspects. The set can be extended for life.
- An aspect of a DT includes both structural and behavioural data and models (including operational and simulation models).
- The semantics of an aspect can be described by semantic models.
- A single aspect can be linked to different heterogeneous data sources (including behavioural models).
- The DT can represent asset types (e.g. virtual prototype of a car) and asset instances (e.g. real car).
- A DT can cover the entire life cycle of an asset (e.g. planning phase, production, sale, utilisation and decommissioning phase). In practice, however, there may be more than one twin with different IDs representing different life cycle phases (e.g. one twin for types and several twins for instances).
- An asset can have more than one DT.
- The DT represents currently available information about an asset (synchronised with a certain frequency and accuracy) that can be used for simulation and business process integration.

By using aspects, the DT can refer to other DTs to express "part of" or "consists of" relationships.

Direct emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions from the processes owned or controlled by the reporting company.

Downstream emissions

Indirect greenhouse gas emissions that occur in the value chain downstream of the processes that the reporting company itself operates or controls.

Eclipse Data Space Connector (EDC)

The EDC aims to create a user-friendly communication bridge that facilitates cross-company data exchange. It integrates seamlessly into existing IT systems and ensures secure and self-determined data exchange. The EDC connects and helps to involve user groups that were previously disconnected and distant from digitalization efforts.

Free Open Source Software (FOSS)

Foss First is an Architecture Principle for Catena-X shared service.

Gaia-X Ecosystem

The Gaia-X Ecosystem consists of the entirety of all individual eco-systems that use the Gaia-X Architecture and conform to Gaia-X re-quirements. Several individual ecosystems may exist that orchestrate themselves, use the Gaia-X Architecture and may or may not use the Gaia-X Federation Services open source software.

Greenhouse gases (GHG)

A gaseous component of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, atmosphere and clouds.

Identity Provider

Intermediary offering services to create, maintain, manage and validate identity information of and for Participants in the International Data Space.

International Data Spaces (IDS)

IDS provide an architecture for sovereign data exchange across companies. It consists of Dataspace Connectors, Broker, Clearingservice and several other components. It's a fundamental FOSS-service of Catena-X.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Compilation and assessment of the input, output and potential environmental impacts of a product system over its entire life cycle.

Mangament shell

The management shell equips all physical and non-physical assets (assets) with a cross-manufacturer, interoperable and standardized digital twin. Thanks to the uniform form and semantics of the management shell, the digital twin will thus be usable across company borders and will accompany an asset over the entire life cycle in the future.

One-up, one-down principle

Data is only passed on to direct customers or suppliers in order to maintain data sovereignty and not pass on any information about customer-supplier relationships to other parties in the value chain. For the use cases, this means that the data is recursively collected and summarised before it is forwarded from the lower to the upper levels.

Primary data

Data relating to a specific product or activity within a company's value chain. This data can take the form of activity data, emissions or emission factors. Primary data is site-specific, company-specific (if there are several sites for the same product) or supply chain-specific.